Communicable disease surveillance and investigation

Communicable disease surveillance and investigation is a vital part of protecting the health and well-being of the citizens of East Liverpool City. These surveillance and investigation activities are largely dependent on prompt disease reporting from many reporting sources. As required by law, physicians, hospitals, labs and healthcare providers must report certain communicable diseases to the Health District. Communicable disease reports received by the East Liverpool City Health District (ELCHD) are investigated and documented according to state guidelines. All reports received are kept confidential according to HIPAA requirements.

What is a Communicable Disease? People sometimes refer to communicable diseases as “infectious” or “transmissible” diseases. A communicable disease is one that is spread from one person to another while others can spread from animal to person through a variety of ways that include: contact with blood and bodily fluids; breathing in an airborne virus; or by being bitten by an insect. 

Learn more about Ohio’s communicable diseases at https://odh.ohio.gov/know-our-programs/infectious-diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s): Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person through sexual contact. STDs can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Examples include gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus infection, HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, and syphilis.

Learn more at https://www.cdc.gov/std/default.htm

Coronavirus (COVID-19): Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. Anyone can get sick with COVID-19 and become seriously ill or die at any age. 

Learn more at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html

Influenza (Flu): Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.

Learn more at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/index.htm

Hepatitis: Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis Ahepatitis B, and hepatitis C

Learn more at https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/index.htm

Lyme Disease: Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and rarely, Borrelia mayonii. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.

Learn more at https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html

Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI’s): Modern healthcare employs many types of invasive devices and procedures to treat patients and to help them recover. Infections can be associated with the devices used in medical procedures, such as catheters or ventilators. These healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) include central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Infections may also occur at surgery sites, known as surgical site infections. 

Learn more at https://www.cdc.gov/hai/index.html